Chords

July 18, 2017 | Tác giả: MAURICIO CABALLERO | Danh mục: Chord (Music), Musicology, Harmony, Pop Culture, Elements Of Music
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Creative Keyboard's DELUXE ENCYCLOPEDIA-

A Complete Study of Chords

/

How to Use Them

Creative Keyboard's

DELUXE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF

PIANO CHORDS A Complete Study of Chords and How to Use Them

The Deluxe Encyclopedia of Piano Chords is a complete and thorough analysis of chords as applied to the piano keyboard. This study encompasses chord construction, usage, scales and rhythm patterns. It is hoped that this text will enable the pianist or organist to effectively use and apply the full diversity of chord possibilities in creating interesting, personal and colorful musical styles.

Dedication: To my Mother, Mabel M., and my Father, Elmer H. Kroepel; music was a happiness in our home. Bob Kroepel

0 1973 by Mel Bay Publications, Inc., Pacific, MO 63069. All Rights Reserved. International Copyright Secured. B.M.I. Made and Printed in the U.S.A.

Piano Keyboard Diagram

............................

Intervals Half-Step and Whole-Step

Thirteenth Chord Thirteenth Flatted Ninth Chord Seven Six Chord Six Nine Chord ............................................ 19

..........................

Accidentals Chart of Accidentals ....................................

Enharmonic Notation

.................................. 20

Numbering the Fingers ................................ 22

Major Scabs Scab Degrees ..............................................

Explanotion of the Keyboard Diagrams and Annotation ....................

.. 23

Chords Chord-Tones ................................................

............

25

Inversions ....................................................

Key of C Major. Scales and Chords

Construction of Common Chords Minor Triad Major Triad Augmented Triad Lowered Fifth Triad ......................................

Key of Ob Major (Identical to C# Maior) Scales and Chords ........................ 30 Key of D Major. Scales and Chords .............. 35 Key of Eb Major. Scales and Chords .............. 40

Diminished Triad Maior Seventh Chord Dominant Seventh Chord Minor Seventh Chord ................................. Maior Sixth Chord Minor Sixth Chord Diminished Seventh Chord Minor Seventh Lowered Fifth Chord

Key of E Maior. Scales and Chords .............. 45 Key of F Major. Scales and Chords .............. 50 Key of F# Major (Identical to Gb Major). Scales and Chords ...................... 55 Key of G Major. Scales and Chords ............ 60

............

Seventh Augmented Fifih Chord Seventh Lowered Fifth Chord Seventh Suspended Fourth Chord Major Seventh Flatted Third. Flatted Fifth Chord ...................................

Key of Ab Major. Scales and Chords

Key of A Major. Scales and Chords ............ 70 Key of Bb Major. Scales and Chords ............ 75

.........

Mojor Seventh Flatted Third. Augmented Fifth Chord Major Ninth Chord Ninth Chord Ninth Augmented Fihh Chord ...................... 16 Ninth Lowered Fifth Chord Minor -Ninth Chord Minor Ninth Augmented Fifth Chord Minor Ninth Lowered Fifth Chord ................ 17 Seventh Flatted Ninth Chord Eleventh Chord Eleventh Flatted Ninth Chord Eleventh Augmented Fifth Chord

............ 65

................ 18

Key of B Maior (Identical to Cb Maior). Scales and Chords .................... 80

...... 85 Using Chords to Play Popular Music .......... 87 Range of the Bass. Chords and Melody

..........................89 The Fox Trot Rhythm Pattern ...................... 91 Alternating the Bars ..................................94 Using Different Chord Positions .................. 95 The Waltz Rhythm Pattern

Alternating the Alternoting Bars

bl. Mel B q hbliutlonr, k. .... ratmntionrl Copyfight S d. Priatd ia USA. -:-All Wtr W.

Q*ri&t

1973

ltfrhood N o

................ 96

Here is a keyboard diagram showing the white keys of the piano keyboard and their location on the Grand Staff

: Trademark

Notice that the number of leger lines needed to locate the pitches of the piano on the Grand Stafl increase towards the ends of the keyboard.

To make it easier to read music is often written with the symbol 8va instead ot the exact number of leger lines. 8 ~ means 1 "octaver "Octave" comes from theLatin word "octava: meaning "eighth: An octave is the same letter eight letters to the left o r right of the original: A B C D E F C A B C D E F G A B C D E F c A B C.-*....-..

T

' octave

T

T

octave

original

8va written above a note means to play the note with the same letter name an octave higher:

Writ ten:

Played:

IF

8va

8va a b s o means to play the note with the same letter name an octave lower:

Written:

Played:

8va a baeeo

!

8- means two octaves higher: 2 8va a b

o means two octaves lower.

OCoprtifit I973 by %el 8.1 hbliatiwr, InC. Kirkwood. Mo. -:-b u m t i o d CopyrWt Sccwd. P t i d ia USA. -:-Nl R d .

In music an Interval is defined a s the distance (in terms of pitch) between two notes. The smallest interval on the piano keyboard is the klf-etep: a half -step is defined a s the intern1 between two adjoining notes :

-

half step

half

-

step

half

-

S*P

Two half- steps equal one whole-atep: whob-wholestep step

wholestep

Musical symbols which alter the letter names of notes are called aceidentala. Here is a chart which explains the symbols used for accidentals: I

Symbol

# b

Name

F u nc tion

Sharp

raises pitch a half-step

Flat

lowers pitch a half-step

X!

Double*Sharp

raises pitch two half- s teps, or one whole- step

bb

DOUM.-FI~~

lowers pitch two half-ste s or one who e- step

Example

1

P

Natural

cancels a sharp or a flat

-

.

Major Scales. --

--

-

The musical alphabet is a continuum, repeating endtessly the first: sevt?fi letters of the English language alphabet: A

B

C

D

E

F

C

A

B

C

D

E

F

C

A

B

C

D

E

F

C

A

..+us

etc,

A scale is a series of tones in an organized sequence. A major acole is an eight-letter sequence of the musica1"aIpHrbet~ The first letter of the major scale is called the Qnic wt., or bymte: the last letter of the mior scale is the same as the keynote but is called the O C ~ W .

Ex. C major wale -

C

D

I

E

F

C

--

A

-

B

Keynote

-

-

C

I .

Octave

The tones of the major scale can be numbered:

The numbrs referring to the tones of a major scale are called ecale [email protected] The musical relationships between the tonea of a major ecale can be expressed by means of wholeateps(abbreviated W) and haif-atepa (abbreviated H) : C

D

E

F

C

A

B

C

Here is the C major scale shown on a keyboard diagram:

Cmaiorscale-C Scale degrees

-

D E F C A B C

l l l l l l l i 1. 2 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

To preserve the whole-step and half-step relationships between the tones of a major scale the key signatureindicates which notes are sharped or flatted

Ex. The G major scale The F sharp(F#) in the key signature indicates that this note is to be played F sharp(F# )

l

l

l

l

l

~

b

C major scale-

C

Scale degrees-

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

1

A 0 C 1

1

1

D 1

1

1

# C

l

)

Ex. The F major ecale The B flat(Bb) in the key signature indicates that this note is to be played B flat(Bb)

F major scale- F G Scale degrees-

A Bb C D E F

A chord is defied as two or more notes played at the same time. In popular music a chord generally has a minimum of three notes. The pitches which make up a chord are called chord-tones:any other pitches are called non-chordtones. Chords can be related to major scales by means of scale degrees.

The chord-tone upon which the rest of the chord is built is called the root.

The chord-tones of any chord can be related to the scale degrees of the major scale having the same keynote as the root of the chord. Scale degrees-

1.

2

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

I

Keynote

Octave I

b

Chord- tones- R. I Root

0.

2

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

NOTE: R is used to differentiate cleerly the root of the chord from the keynote of the scale when using numbers.

A major triad consists of the root, third and fifth scale degrees (R 3. 5.).

C major scale- C

D

E

F

C

A

B

C

Scale degrees-

1.

2

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

a

Chord- tones-

R.

5.

3.

E

C

C

A minor triad consists of the root, flatted third and fifth scale degreds (R. b3. 5.).

Ex. C minor triad C major scale-

C.

D.

E.

F.

C.

A.

B.

C.

Scale degrees-

1.

2

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Chord- tones-

R.

b3.

5.

Inversions A rearrangement of chord-tones is called an invereion. A chord with the root a s the lowest note is said to be in root position; a chord with the third a s the lowest note is said to be in the first inversion;

a chord with the fifth a s the lowest note is said to be in the second inversion, etc. However, the term position is often used instead of inversion:the relationship between position and hvereion can be confusing and is shown below:

Ex. C major triad. C

C- Root

Root Position

I

E-3rd

C-5th

First lrvereion or Second Poeition

Second Inversion or Third Posit ion

Sice chord-tones can be rearranged into a s many positions a s there are chord-tones four-note chords will have four positions, five-note chords will have five positions, etc. Specific chord positions can be indicated by using a slash mark ( / ) after the chord symbol and a 1etter,I"~"for root position,or a number for other positions: C/R -- C major triad, root position; C/2 C/3 -- C major triad, third position, etc.

-C

major triad, second position;

When the composer wishes to specify a particular bass note he may use a slash mark and a letter indicating the desired bass note: C/E -- C major triad(any position), E bass note; C/C

-C major triad, C bass note, etc.

A specific chord position and a specific bass note can be indicated by using two slash marks, the letter or number after the first slash mark indicating the chord position, the letter after the second nrark indicating the bass note: C12/G

-

C major triad, second position, C bass note, etc.

Since it is difficult for the average-sized hand to play more than four notes at a time only the top four notes of ninth(5-note) chords, eleventh(6-note) and thirteenth(7-note) chords will be inverted:

Ninth Chords

Eleventh chords

Thirteenth Chords

NOTE:ninth, eleventh and thirteenth chords are substitutes for common o r dominant seventh chords; to simplify his playing the student may use the common or dominant seventh chord instead of the ninth, eleventh or thirteenth.

On the following pages chords and their construction by means of scale degrees are shown

Although the examples given are for C chords any root can be used. The most common chord symbols will also be given. For the examples in C thb C major scale should be kept in mind:

Cmajorscsle-C

r

l

r

~

r

D E F G A B C D

~

E F

~

C

r

A B C

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Scale degrees- L z 3. 4.

s.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12 13. 14. 15.

~

r

r

t

~

~

Major Triad Chord- tones-R..

3..

5.

Chord symbol- C (capital letter only)

Minor Triad Chord- tones- R..

b3..

5.

Chord symbols=Cmor C-

Augmented Triad Chord- tones-R., Chord symbols-C+s,

45

3.. C+,

Lowered Fiftb Triad Chord- tones- R., 3.. b5. Chord symbols- C-5, C(b5)

C ( t 5)

Diminished Triad

Chord- tones-. R., b3., b5. Chord symbols

-

Cdim.. C*

Major Seventh Chord 3..

Chord-tones--R.,

C h o r d symbols-Cmaj.7,

C

E

G

5..

7.

CM7.

B

Dominant Seventh Chord C h o r d - t o n e s - R., 3., 5.. b7. C h o r d symbol -C7

Minor Seventh Chonl Chord-tones-

R., b3., 5.. b7.

C h o r d symbol = Cm7

C

Major Sixth Chord Chord-tones- R.,

3..

5..

6.

Chord symbol-=C6

Minor Sixth Chord Chord-tones-

R., b3.,

5., 6.

Chord symbol-Cm6

Diminished Seventh Chord Chord-tones-R.,

b3.. b5..

bb7.

Chord symbol-Cdim. 7

C

Eb

Gb Bbb

Minor Seventh Lowered Fifth Chord, or Half-Diminished Chord Chord-tones- R.,

b3.,

Chord symbols -Cm7-5, C'

b5., b7.

Seventh Augmented Fifth Chord, or Augmented Seventh Chord

-

Chord symbols C7+5. C7aug. 5

Seventh Lowered Fifth Cbord Chord- tones- R., 3.. b5.. b7 Chord symbols- C7-5, C7b5, C7(bS)

Seventh Suspended Fourth Chord

Chord symbol

= C7sus. 4

Major Seventh Flatted Third, Flatted Fifth Chord Chord-tones- R..b3.,b5., 7. b3 Chord symbols- CM7 bs Cmaj.7, b3. b5

Major Seventh Flatted Third, Augmented Fifth Chord

-

Chord- t o n e s R., b3., $ 5.. 7. Chord symbols-- CM7

Cmaj. 7. b3,

Major Ninth Chord

Chord- t o n e s - R.. 3.. 5.. 7.. 9 Chord symbol-Cmaj. 9

Ninth Chord C h o r d - t o n e s - R.. 3., 5.. b7.. 9.

Chord symbol- C9

Ninth Augmented F i f t h Chord Chord- tones- R., 3.. t5.. b7.. 9. C h o r d s y m b o l s = C9. $5.C9, +5.

$5

Ninth Lowered Fifth Chord

Chord- tones==R.. B., b5.. b7..

9.

Cflord symbt.rls =CO-5, C:O, b5.

Mioor Ninth Chord

Chord- tones==H.. b3.. 5., b i . , 9. Chord symbol-

CrilV

Minor Ninth Augmented Fifth Chord

Chord-torics- R.,b3.. 4.5, Chord symbols

-

b7.. 0.

Ctnsf5, Cm9 $5

Minor N i n t h Lowered F i f t h Chord Cliord-

tancXs- R,.b:l.. b5.. b?.,!).

Chord symbols -LnlY-;,

C

Eb

(;b

lib

I.)

(.ln9, b5.

Seventh Flatted Ninth Chord Chord- tones= R., 3., 5.,b7., b9. Chord symbols = C7, b9, C7-9

Eleventh Chord Chord-tones=~.,3.,5.,b7.,9.,11. Chord symbol==C11

C

E

G

B

b

D

F

Eleventh Flatted Ninth Chord Chord- tones= H.,3., 5.. b7.. b9., 11. Chord symbols

-

C11. b9. C11-9

Eleventh Augmented F i f t h Chord

Chord symbols-CI1,

P5,Cll. +5.

Thirteenth Chord Chord-tones=R.,3.,5., b7.,9., ll.,13. Chord symbol- C13.

Thirteenth Flatted Ninth Chord Chord-tones- R., 3., S..b7..b9., 11.. 13. Chord symbols = C13, b 9 ,C13-9

Seven S i x Chord Chord- tones

-

R., 3., S.,6.. b7.

Chord symbols =C7,6, C7/6.

S i x Nine Chord Chord- tones -- R.. 3.. S., 6., 9. Chord symbol -C6,9.

Ehharmonic Notation The musical alphabet is used to label the white keys only. The black keys derive their names from the adjjcent white keys. The following chart shows how the keys are named:

C D E F C A B C D E F G A B C F b El Cb B#

Notice that a black key can b v e two names, such a s C$-Db. The fact that a key can have more than one name is called enharmonic notation, meaning equivalent names for the same pitch. Notice that certain white keys can have two names, such as E-Fb. Enharmonic notation is used to preserve certain musical relationships, such as the whole-step and half-step relationships between the scale degrees of a major ocale. Ex.

M Major Scale. Ft major scale- F$ Scale degrees -- 1

-

Half step Formula for Major Scales

c#

A$

B

Cl

\I

- \W /\i\/"\ w H wI\ /\ W

E8

Dl

W

F#

1

H

Because there must be a half-step between the 7 th and 8th scale degrees the white key which is a half-step down from FI is now called Et insteul of F natural.

Enharmonic notation is quite often used in writing music in order to make it easier to read in certain situations. In a diminished seventh chord the diminished seventh itself is theoretically written a s the double-flatted seventh scale degree ( bb7 ) : however, the double-flatted seventh is often difficult to read and the enharmonic equivalent, the major sixth scale degree, is often used instead:

Ex. C Diminished Seventh Chord Chord- tones= R., b3., bS., bb7

C dim 7

C

Eb

Gb

theoret'ical notation

Bbb (theoretical ) or

Enharmonic notation

A I (Enharmonic) In this book the correct theoretical notation will be used throughout.

NOTE: in the above example, if the diminished seventh chord were built on Cb instead of C, the chord- tones would have been Cb, Ebb, Gbb , Bbbb (B triple flat ! ! ) :conceivably, Ebb, Cbb Bbbb could be written with their enharmonic equivalents, D , F , and A :

theoretical notation

Enharmonic notation

The fingers can be numbered with the thumb of each hand counted u . ~ o n e , ; hlittle finger as five:

.

.

.

The scales on the following pages should be pr~ctisedwith strict adherence to the fingerings given, the thumb passing under the other fingers in ascending wbile the other f i e r s pass over the thumb , descending: , C

\

.-

;r

a

1

Finger iw for the Right hand

4

4 -

a

4

b

..

Thumb under

,-=

'?'' Fingers over

Written:

Played:

8va means play an octave higher than written.

LOCOmeans return to the original octave.

w

C

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

F

E

D

C

B

A

G

When the notes written in the bass clef c l i i too high on the staff the treble clef can be used to eliminate the need for leger lines:

G

A

B

C

D

E

F

C

F

E

D

C

B

C

F

In the following pages major scales are presented by means of keyboard diagrams and annotation on the Grand Staff.

Ex. CMajor Scale. Key of C Major C NIJor Scale in One Octave:

Key board

Diagram

Scale Tones Scale Degrees

b r i n g for tlse Right Hand

Fingering for the Left Hand

-c -

1

-

D E F C A B C 2

3 4 5

6 7

8

--

In the following pages the chords most cornmonb found in popular music r r s p m ~ n b dby msanr of keyboard diagrams.

Er. C Yajer Trfad. A-trtlom:

Tmbk Clef --===4-

Baee Clef

7

NOTE: another keyboard diagram for the fourth position of four-note chords and inversions of the top four notes of five-,

six-,

and seven-note chords will be given where needed.

TO conserve space fingerings for the chords are not shown, A

rule for fingering the chords is "use whrtetver fingering is comiortrble and convenient:'

Key of C Major C Major Scale in One Octave

Scale Tones Scale Degrees

= =

c

D E F G A B c 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

C Major Scale in Two Octaves

ScaleTones=C D E F G A B C D E F G A B C Scale degrees = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

C

E

G

C/2

C+5

E

C+5/3

d

C

C-5

Cdim

Eb

Cdim 13

Gb

C

Cmaj 7 C

C

1

E

G

B

A

C

E

G

D

gE

Cmaj 9

C

E

G

B

D

p:

* I

I

Key of ~b Major (identical to C# ) Db Major Scale in One Octave

Scale Tones =Db Eb Scale Degrees = 1 2

F ~b ~b ~b 3 4 5 6

C Dib 7 8

D b Major Scale in Two Octaves

Scale -Tones = Db Eb Scale Degrees = 1 2

3 4 5 6

7 8 9

1011 12 13

14 15

Db dim

32 Db7

C D ~F

Dbmi

Cb ~b

~b

D b6

F

~b

~ b m 6

~b

F ~

b

~

Db dim 7

b

F AbBb Db

Bb

Db

F

F

Bb

Ab

Db7+5

I

Db Fb

Ab

Key of D Major D Major Scale in One Octave

Scale Tones

=

D E

Scale Degrees -- 1 2

F#G A B

C# D

3 4 5

7 8

6

D Major Scale in Two Octaves

Scale Tones

=

D E

F1#G A B

C# D E

Scale Degrees

=

1

3 4

5 6

7 8 9

2

14G

A B

C#D

10 11 12 13 14 15

Ddim

Dmaj 7

c#

cb

Ddim 7

kj D

Dmaj 9

3

:8

D

Key of E b Major Eb Major Scale in One Octave

Scale Tones

=

Eb F G Ab Bb C D ~b

Scale Degrees

=

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

~ ~ ~ a Scale j o rin Two Octaves

Scale Tones

=

~b

F G ~b gb c D Et, F G ~b ~b c D ~b

Scale Degrees

=

1

2

3 4

5

6

7

8

9 10 11 12

13 14 15

Eb+5

Eb-5

E b dim

Key of E Major E Major Scale in One Octave

Scale Tones

=

E FU G # A B C U D t E

Scale Degrees

=

1

2 3 4

5

6

7 8

E Major Scale in Two Octaves

Scale Tones

=

Scale Degrees=

E

F t G # A B C# D # E F # GUA B C I D # E

1

2 3 4

5

6 7 8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Edim

Emaj 7

9E

C#

Rva

E.7s u s 4

Dh B A E

F#G# B Ems

~4 Rva,

I

:\

El, b

9

p:!r

F # G ~ B ~~h Rval

El. 6

pb :l

Key of F Major F Major Scale in One Octave

Scale Tones

=

F G A Bb C D E F

Scale Degrees

=

1 2 3 4

5

6

7

8

F Major Scale in Two Octaves

S c a l e T o n e s = F G A B ~C D E F G A B b C Scale Degrees

=

1 2 3 4

5

6 7 8

D E

F

9 1011 12 13 14 15

F F/2

A

C

Fdim

I

E

C A

Fmaj 1

F

F

A

C

E

Fdim I

D I

F

A

C

8va

E C%'

b;

F11 b 9

Ebb

C A

F

Key of F# Major (identical to G

b Major)

F # Major Scale in One Octave

Scale Tones

=

F4 G# A# B

C# D# E# F #

Scale Degrees

=

1

5

FU

Scale T o n e s = Scale Degrees

=

2

3 4

6

7 8

Major Scale in Two Octaves

F # G # A d B C# D# E#F#G$AjB 1

2 3 4

5

6

Cf D'# E # F #

7 8 9 10 11 12 13

14 15.

F # dim

# Jch F# -5/2

~h

dn!cil

59 n

Rva l

Key of G Major G Major Scale in One Octave

Scale Tones

=

G A

B C D E F'#'G

Scale Degrees

=

1 2

3

4

5

6

7 8

G Major Scale in Two Octaves

B C D E F# G

Scale Tones

=

G A

B C D E

F# G A

Scale Degrees

=

1 2

3

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

4

5 6

G

B

D

G/2

Gdim

F#

Cmaj 7

D B G

G

B

F#

D

Gdim 7

"bD~b G

E

G

B

D

8va,

Gmajs

Gs

D

~ t lA

Gm s

I

1

~ ' 4 AB

B

D

A B

D

Fq

Key of

Major

Ab Major S c a l e in One Octave

n

I , I n h r: h

I

v , ,

V

*

I.

. I I

Scale Tones

=

kbB b

C

Scale Degrees

=

1 2

3 4 5 6 7 8

A

r

I I

I

I

I rn I I

~b

Scale T o n e s = Scale Degrees

=

I

I

. I I

Db E b F G ~ ! b

r

I

I

I

. I I I

a

r

I I

o I

a I

I

Major Scale in Two Octaves

AbBb

C DbEb F G AbBb C DbEb F G Ab

1 2

3 4 5

6 7 8 9

A

10 11 12 13 14 15

8va---

- - - - - - Loco

I

I

I . I I

a I

I I 0

I

A b dim

8Va

Rva

Rva

Hva

Rva

Rva B%

A b rns

:t2 b

nb.

8va

A Major Scale in One Octave

Scale Tones

=

A B C.U D E

F'11 G # A

I

Scale Degrees

=

1 2 3

4 5

6 7 8

A Major Scale in Two Octaves

ScaleTones= Scale Degrees

=

A B

CUD E

F#GdA B c # D

1 2

3 4 5

6 7

8

E F#G#A

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Adim

8va

Adim

8ua

Adim 7

E

b;

Rva

Key of

~b Major

B b Major S c a l e in One Octave

Scale Tones

=

~b

C D Eb

F G A

~b

Scale Degrees

=

1

2 3 4

5 6

8

7

B b Major S c a l e in Two Octaves

Scale Tones

=

~b

C D ~b F G

Scale Degrees

=

1

2

3 4

5 6

A ~b

C D ~b F G A ~b

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

gva--

- - -- --

Loco

B b dim 800

~b ~b Bb dim /3

Bb

Bb

Bbdim

+5

Rva

Rva

~b dim 7

At

Eb,

D

F

A

C

C D

F

Rva

A

nua

K,ey of B Major ( identical t o ~b ) B Major Scale in One Octave

Scale Tones

=

13 C% D% E

Scale Degrees

=

1

2

3

4

Fltl G'#[email protected]

5 6

7

8

B Major Scale in Two Octaves

Scale Tones

=

B

C%D # E

F# G# A# B C# D%E

Scale Degrees

=

1

2 3 4

5 6 7

8

F U GS A # B

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

8va-

- -

--

- - - Loco

B+5

B--5

Bdim

:Ir

:$B

B

Bdim 7

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9

Range of the Bass, Chords and Melody H e r e i s a keyboard diagram showing the r a n g e s used f o r the b a s s , c h o r d s and melodies of popular songs:

r

Melody Range

Trademark

i

H e r e is a c h a r t showing the b a s s a n d c h o r d s in r o o t position f o r t h e C, Dm, F, a n d G c h o r d s which will be u s e d in t h e examples on the following pages:

Bass

Chord

Trademark

Trademark

Trademark

Trademark

Using Chords To Play Popular Songs Many popular s o n g s a r e w r i t t e n in l e a d s h e e t form showing only the c h o r d s , melody a n d lyrics:

Chords A I 1

Melody -w& cl Lyrics-when

2

d

)c

---

I I I

I

8'

I

I I

e l . *

I

I

I

I V

I

I

I

I.

I

W'

hold

you.

T h e simnlest method o f i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e lead s h e e t is to play t h e .melody with t h e right hand and t o play sustained c h o r d s with the l e f t hand. T h e time s i g n a t u r e means t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e c o u n t s in e a c h measure. The left hand plays the c h o r d at t h e beginning of e a c h m e a s u r e a n d s u s t a i n s the c h o r d f o r all t h r e e counts:

C

(1

c o u n t :-1

2

E

3 1

D

G

1

2

3 1

1

F

A

2

3 1

1

2

3

1

T h e keyboard diagrams shown above e a c h song in this book a r e to help t h e s t u d e n t l e a r n the c h o r d s a n d t o s e e how they a r e used. Notice t h a t one c h o r d p e r m e a s u r e h a s b e e n used, e a c h c h o r d being r e p e a t e d in succesive m e a s u r e s until the c h o r d symbol changes. Root position c h o r d s a r e being u s e d b e c a u s e t h e y a r e easily remembered.

Here is the entire song which was presented a s an example on t h e previous page. Play this selection with sustained chords.

rn mnmn rn C

E

G

D

F

F

A

A

mi

C

G

B

D

When I Hold You

when

I

hold

then

I

know

You

How

I

love

to

with

You

be

YOU

* NOTE: omit the note D in the G major triad in the left hand when it conflicts with the D in the melody in the right hand.

The Waltz Rhythm Patterh The waltz rhythm pattern i s found in the time signature of three counts in each measure. The waltz rhythm pattern is counted.

a, this

means

that there a r e

1. 2. 3. "One" "Two" "Three"

The waltz rhythm pattern i s played : Bass (Abbreviated : B

Chord Chord C c

>

The "Bass"is the root of the chord played an octave lower than the "Chord."

Bass

Chord

Trademark

Left hand alone : C Count: 1

f

Bass

I

t

Chord Chord

f

Bass

t

Chord

Right hand plays the melody while Left hand plays the waltz rhythm pattern:

t

Chord

Coordination Exercise: Waltz #l. Coordination exercises a r e designed to give the student an opportunity to practice coordinating rhythm patterns with simple melodies and chords. In this coordination exercise the waltz rhythm pattern is abbreviated and placed below the count to help visualize the coordination of the melody and rhythm pattern.

rn C

E

Onmn

D F A

G

F

A

C

G B D

Count:

1

2

3

1

2

3

1

2

3

1

2

3

Rhythm Pattern:

B

C

C

B

C

C

B

C

C

B

C

C

I

I

I

I d

V

I

c)

1 B

2 C

1 B

2 C

1 B

2 C

I I I I

-

I

rl

I

I

I I 0

I

I

um

u

1 B

2 C

3 C

1 B

2 C

3 C

3 C

1 B

2 C

3 C

1 B

2 C

3 C

3 C

1 B

2 C

3 C

3 C

I

I

1 B

1 B

2 C

3 C

2 C

3 C

The Fox Trot Rhythm Pattern

+,

The fox trot rhythm pattern i s found in the time signature of sometimes written C (which means common time). This means that there a r e four counts per measure. The fox trot rhythm pattern i s counted: The fox trot rhythm pattern is played : : (Abbreviated

1. "One "

Bass B

3. 'Three" Bass B

2. 'Two"

Chord C

4. "Four"

Chord c )

The "Bass" is the root of the chord and is played an octave lower the "Chord:'

Bass

Chord

Trademark

Left hand alone:

Count: 1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

Bass Chord Bass Chord Bass Chord Bass Chord

Right hand plays the melody while Left hand plays the fox trot rhythm pattern:

B

C

B

C

B

C

B

C

Coordination Exercise: Fox Trot # 1. In this exercise the fox trot rhtyhm pattern has been abbreviated and placed below the count in order to help visualize the coordination of the melody and the rhythm pattern.

Count: 1

2

3

4

1

2

B

C

B

C

B

C B C

Rhythm Pattern:

1

2

3

4

B C B C

1

2

3

4

B C B C

1

3

2

4

3

4

B C B C

1

2

3

4

1

3

4

1

2

B

C

B

C

B C B

C

B

C B C

2

3

4

The fox t r o t rhythm p a t t e r n is also u s e d for f a s t tempos such a s polkas and marches. The fox t r o t rhythm p a t t e r n is often written in + m e t r e , In Q m e t r e the fox t r o t rhythm p a t t e r n is counted

:

In +metre the fox t r o t rhythm p a t t e r n is played (Abbreviated

: Bass :B

also written as.

+

1. "One"

"And"

Chord

e

a

Bass

Chord

C

B

c

Trademark

a * .

T

L e f t hand alone:

B

C

B

C

B

C

B

C

Right hand plays the melody while the left hand plays the fox t r o t rhythm p a t t e r n :

V B

C

v

B

C

v

B

C

V

B

+

"And"

Chord

C

Bass

2. "Two"

$

C

>

Alternating the Bass. Repeating the same bass note creates a certain monotony called the droning e f f e c t . To avoid the droning effect alternate the bass. The following chart shows which chord-tones to use when alternating the bass:

Chord

Alternating B a s s

Fundamental B a s s

Major Chord Minor Chord Augmented Chord Lowered Fifth Chord Diminished Chord

Fifth ( 5 ) Fifth ( 5 ) Third ( 3 ) Third ( 3 ) Flatted Third ( b 3 )

(R)

Root Root Root Root Root

(R) (R) (R) (R)

Here a r e some examples of the alternating bass a for C major T r i a d :

Fundamental

Alternating

7 7

\B a s s

Bass

Chord

Trademark

I 11 111 11

Left hand alone:

C Count: 1

2

3

Waltz

C Count:l

2

3

4

I

1

2

I

3

4

1

I

I

2

3

4

1

I

I

2

3

I

4

I

Fox Trot

I B R

I

I

C

B 5

C

B R

C

B

5

C

B R

I

C

B 5

C

B R

C

B

5

C

Using Different Chord Positions When all of the chords in a song are played in root position the transitions between chords a r e not smoothe because of the necessary hand movement up and down the staff :

rnmm C

E

G

Srmther transitions between chords can be Rade by using different chord positions:

m E

G

C

Alternating the Alternating Bass Often in the transition between chords a droning effect occurs in the bass even though the bass is alternating :

C/ 2 /C Count: 1

2.

C / 2 /G 3 4

G/3/G 1 2

G/ 3 /D 3

4

Droning Effect Notice that the alternating bass for both chords is root and fifth (R and 5 ) . T h e droning e f f e c t is created because of the repetition of the G bass notes in the transition between the C and G chords, C/2/G and W 3 T

TO'

/$

avoid the droning effect simply alternate the alternating bass notes:

C/ 2 /R

'

C/ 2/G

Count : 1

2

3

4

B R

C

B 5

C

C/ 3/D 1 2

B 5

C

G/ 3 /G 3

4

B F

C

Reversing the order of the alternating bass notes in the G chord now avoids the droning efect:

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